Overcoming the debilitating tendency to worry about being judged by others.
• Studies show that people consistently overestimate how much, and how badly, others think about their failings.
• Being consistently kind helps one worry less about what others think.
• Developing attentional control can help one overcome the tendency to worry about what others think.
Embarrassment, and the related emotion of shame, arise when we violate a moral code or an "expected standard". Thus, we feel embarrassed and ashamed when we are caught cheating on an exam or when we do badly on it. These emotions arise when we wonder how poorly others must think of us.
Embarrassment and shame aren’t pleasant to experience. But they do serve a useful purpose. Studies show that we are likely to be more considerate and kind, and also more likely to be motivated to correct past mistakes when we experience embarrassment or shame. So, at one level, it’s a good thing that we care so much about what others think of us.
But what’s also true is that most of us are guilty of worrying too much about what others think of us. Studies show that we consistently overestimate how much, and how badly, others think about our failings. An unfortunate consequence of this is that we are far more inhibited and far less spontaneous and joyful than we could be.
The good news is that many of us seem to recognize this problem. In my happiness course, I sometimes ask students to list all the things they want to get out of the class. The outcome that consistently ranks at the top of this list: I would like to learn how to stop being bothered by what others are thinking of me.
How do we stop being bothered by what others think of us?
I have discovered that the following three principles can help.
Operate from other-centeredness
As I commented in another post, we are a painfully social species. For example, as many as four out of five processes going on in the background of the brain are about our relationships with others. We care so much about others because our happiness depends on the quality of our relationships. One study found that every last person in the happiest 10 percent of the participants had at least one intimate relationship; so, if you want to belong to the happiest 10 percent, great relationships are not a luxury—it’s a necessity. Similarly, another study found that the top 2 of 25 activities that we routinely do—like eating, driving, socializing, working—involve other people.
So, there’s a good reason we worry about what others think of us. We want to be in their good books so that we can develop and nurture our relationships with them. Our worrying about what others think of us stems from the fear that we may be bereft of friends or intimacy. This fear can, in some instances, be useful. As I mentioned earlier, embarrassment and shame can motivate us to behave in a more considerate or appropriate manner, increasing the chances that others like us.
But if the fear is too high, it can also be counterproductive. Constantly wondering whether others like us enough can evoke anxiety, leading to neediness and insecurity, which in turn drive others away from us. This can propel a vicious cycle, resulting ultimately in a loss of self-respect and social alienation.
What Is Anxiety?
Find a therapist to overcome anxiety
One way to break this vicious cycle is to operate from a place of other-centeredness, rather than self-centeredness. If you are consistently kind and considerate, then you will worry less about what others think of you. There are two reasons why. First, others will naturally like you more when you are kind and considerate; so, you won’t need to worry as much about what others think of you.
Second, even if your actions are misinterpreted or lead to unforeseen negative outcomes—the road to hell, after all, is paved with good intentions—you will know that your intentions were benign. This will give you the mental freedom to worry less about what others think of you.
Is it worth becoming more other-centered just to stop worrying about what others think of you? Here is good news: Being other-centered is not just a happiness booster, but also a success booster. Specifically, you are more likely to be successful if you are a giver, rather than a taker.
Recognize that hurt people hurt people
That's not a typo: Hurt people do hurt people. Even if you do your best to be kind and considerate, you may still be judged negatively by others. This is not a reflection of your failings; rather, it is a reflection of where others are coming from. People often behave in the only way they know. Recognizing this can help you become a little more compassionate towards others, and thereby, lower your worry about what others think of you.
That said, however, this principle—of discounting the negative judgments of others—should be applied with caution. As we know from numerous findings on the self-serving bias, it’s easy to blame others for one’s own failings. So, you will want to make sure that you aren’t brushing aside your real shortcomings just to make yourself feel better. It’s important to be brutally honest with yourself: Was I truly considerate and kind? Or, am I being delusional about it?
The third thing you could do to stop being bothered by what others think of you: Develop attentional control.
Develop attentional control
Sometimes, you may realize that others’ negative judgments of you are justified: you simply screwed up. But that doesn’t mean that you have to wallow in embarrassment and shame forever. The Catholics have a nifty way of getting rid of unproductive embarrassment and shame: confessing to a priest. But if you aren't lucky enough to be Catholic, you can practice what researchers call attentional control.
Attentional control is what it sounds like: being able to control what you pay attention to. It involves practicing the ability to direct your attention to those things on which you wish to focus, and away from those things on which you do not wish to focus.
Perhaps the best way to practice attentional control is through mindfulness. Although mindfulness does not work for everyone, it is still a very powerful way of developing attentional control, as I can attest from personal experience. The one downside to mindfulness is that it can take quite long—a few weeks at least—to start seeing progress. But I think the time is well worth it, and the sooner you begin, the better off you are. Another side benefit of mindfulness is that you develop greater self-awareness, which can be useful in preventing self-delusion.
If you don’t find mindfulness excercises palatable or useful, there is an alternative for developing attentional control: plunging yourself into action. As Goethe famously said, “action has magic, power, and grace to it.” One reason why action has magic, power, and grace is that it helps you focus your attention on the goals that you are trying to accomplish, rather than on what others are thinking of you.
But what type of action should you take to focus your attention away from what others are thinking of you?
I would suggest doing those things that help you nurture your other-centered—kind and compassionate—side. Do a random act of kindness. Or write a letter of gratitude. Or, do those things that get you into what you can call "flow."
Worrying too much about what others think of you can be debilitating. But these three things can help:
• Operating more consistently from other-centeredness
• Recognizing that hurt people hurt people
• Developing attentional control can help you overcome this tendency to worry
Raj Raghunathan, Ph.D., is an Associate Professor affiliated with the Department of Marketing at the University of Texas McCombs School of Business.